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Illustration: Emperor Xuande Playing Chuiwan
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Illustration: Emperor Xuande Playing Chuiwan

Emperor Xuande Playing Chuiwan

no other resolution
license: public domain
source: Wikimedia Commons
author: Shang Xi (15th century AD)

A color illustration depicts Ming dynasty emperor Xuande playing chuiwan, a game similar to golf. Five flags of various colors mark holes in the field in which the emperor plays. Nine ministers watch and assist him in the game.


Illustration: 1425–1435 AD

Photo: 2006


This illustration by 15th century painter Shang Xi depicts the game of chuiwan, a sport very similar to modern golf dating back to at least 950 AD. The falling out of this sport in the late 15th century coincides with the earliest literary references to golf in Western culture, suggesting chuiwan may have attributed to the development of golf.

At the time of photograph, this painting was housed at the Palace Museum in the Forbidden City, Beijing.

Related Articles

Chinese Chuiwan | History of Ball Sports | History of Golf


Hongling, L. (1991). Verification of the Fact that Golf originated From Chuiwan. The Australian Society for Sports History Bulletin.

Narayanasamy, S. (Ed.). (2014). International Conference on Social Science and Management (ICSSM 2014). DES tech Publications, Inc.